Our Research

Our research comprises current research projects of SIERC associates that align with the ethos of the Centre. We summarise here some of this ongoing research.

Project ADD-UP (Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance)

Team leaders: Professors Stuart Carr (Massey) and Malcolm MacLachlan Trinity College Dublin

According to the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, local workers and expatriate workers should be on similar pay scales. However, expatriate aid workers worldwide are paid more than local colleagues. Project ADDUP (Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance) tested the impact of this discrepancy on local workers' motivation in the health, education and business sectors of six countries: Malawi, Uganda, India, China, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. The project, which is led by Massey University and Trinity College Dublin, found that dual salaries perpetuate dominance and injustice, and undermine pride. They lead to poverty not capacity-building in low-income countries.

»» view case study

Carr, S.C., MacLachlan, M. and McWha, I. (2010) Are Development Discrepancies Undermining Performance?, International Journal of Psychology, (Special issue), 2010. MacLachlan, M., Carr, Stuart.C., McAuliffe, E. , The Aid Triangle: Recognizing the Human Dynamics of Dominance, Justice and Identity, London & New York, Zed, 2010. »» view details

Hybrid Innovation

Team : Dr Loren Stangl and Professor Anne de Bruin, with Amy Lyes (Summer Student Scholarship, PhD candidate)

Hybrid or dual-purpose innovations are new, commercially viable products/processes created to target social problems and needs. They lie at one extreme of the ‘social innovation continuum’ (de Bruin and Stangl 2013). Increasingly hybrid innovations develop through multiple stakeholder involvement including user community collaboration. Theoretically hybrid innovations link economic and social value creation and embrace community interaction. Little is known about how hybrid innovations develop, how collaborations emerge, grow and succeed, or how connectivity between diverse communities transforms societal value creating ideas into commercially viable hybrid innovations. Our research takes a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap. This project has received two Massey University Research Fund (MURF) grants: A 2012-13 MURF Summer Student Scholarship awarded to Loren Stangl and a MURF 2013 grant.

Case Studies in Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The aim of this project is to conduct a series of case studies that will contribute to increased awareness and advancement of social entrepreneurship and innovation in New Zealand and internationally. The intention will be to understand the rich entrepreneurial experience and socially innovative actions of those involved in each of the cases, and to assist their further development, if possible, via the discussion, feedback and write-up process of the case. Since it is intended that the project will comprise a series of individual cases (number depending on researcher (team) time and funding), the intention is to create a set of hypotheses to grasp the broader context of success of social entrepreneurship and generate a deeper understanding of social innovation.

Inaugural Case:

We were delighted to work with the Wellington Zoo, for our first case. Our first co-authored academic paper on our Zoo case is:
de Bruin, A., Fabrizi, S., Lee, L., Lippert, S. (2010) Not for loss: Insights on building a community asset' Presented at the 7th Annual Satter Conference of Social Entrepreneurs, New York, November 3 – 5. Available as Massey University, College of Business Research Paper No. 28, Downloadable in SSRN at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1934278

Hooks, J. (2012). Entrepreneurial Not-for-profits and accountability, NZ Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 10(2), pp. 17-36.
This paper evaluates the annual reporting of Wellington Zoo within a context of accountability of an entity with public funding. The need to be accountable is often overlooked when entrepreneurship is the guiding influence on strategy and development. A model for best practice social responsibility and environmental reporting is posited

Environmental behaviour in the small firm context

Team: Drs Sue Cassells & Kate Lewis

This project examines what factors influence environmental behaviours and decision making processes in the small firm context. A particular focus is investigating the complex inter-relationship between attitude and action.

Social Finance

Team: Dr Sasha Molchanov and Dr Jeffrey Stangl

Our current research examines New Zealand’s social finance market. Social finance describes the supply and management of financial resources employed by social enterprises to derive outcomes generating both community benefit and economic return. The international importance of social finance has seen substantial growth given reduced government provision of social services and increasing environmental pressures. Comparative international studies already establish a critical need for developing social finance markets. However, research has yet to examine the development and dimensions of New Zealand’s social finance market. Our initial research thus investigates three key research questions: What is the value of social finance in New Zealand? What are the drivers of, contributors to, demanders of, and impediments to New Zealand’s social finance market? Lastly, what can we comparatively learn from other countries in developing an effective local social finance market? Addressing these questions seeks to establish a robust framework for New Zealand’s social finance market, linking social financiers, social enterprises, and government decision makers.

Social Franchising

Researcher: Dr Susan Flint-Hartle

Franchising is an important strategy for growing social enterprises by knowledge transfer to achieve common social and financial goals. Experience passed on from successful social enterprises allows more people, often those disadvantaged in the labour market, to be employed in the social economy within a supportive community. The phenomenon of social franchising has contributed to the extensive growth of social enterprise in Europe in the last ten years where it is estimated to contribute some 600 million Euro to the European market. However, knowledge and awareness of the impact of social franchising remains low (Bartilson 2012). In the Asia Pacfic region few social franchises have been identified and studied. My research builds on work in the traditional franchise sector (Flint-Hartle, Fraser & Weven, 2010, 2012), to provide insight into this new area. I begin by posing a series of questions: Are the social franchising models identifiable in Europe replicated in New Zealand? What advantages are afforded the social economy by the entrepreneurial alliance made possible in a franchising strategy? Are there lessons to be learned from the European experience of financing social franchise growth through development and expansion?

The Significance of Symbolic Capital (Identity and Symbolic Capital)

Team: Professor Anne de Bruin, Drs Simona Fabrizi and Steffen Lippert

Awards and prizes or similar representations of symbolic capital are extremely prevalent in today’s world. However, there is very little research on the impact on the identity and success of individuals and organisations that receive such awards and acquire this form of capital. This interdisciplinary research project seeks to advance theory in economics, and other sub-areas such as entrepreneurship, by understanding the interface between two topics: Identity economics and symbolic capital. We will also look at how symbolic capital contributes to non-profit organisations and individuals in this sector. This project has received 2011 funding from the Massey University Research Fund.

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